Duchesne’s Antagonism between molds and bacteria, an English Colloquial Translation. 2.

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Guinea pigs are called quwi or jaca in Quechua and cuy or cuyo in the Spanish of Ecuador and Bolivia. Breeders tend to use the more formal "cavy" to describe the animal, while in scientific and laboratory contexts, it is far more referred to by the more colloquial "guinea pig".

How the animals came to be called "pigs" is not clear, they are built somewhat like pigs, with large heads relative to their bodies, stout necks, rounded rumps with no tail of any consequence. They can survive for long periods in small quarters, like a'pig pen', were thus transported on ships to Europe ; the animal's name alludes to pigs in many European languages. This meant " dolphin " and was used because of the animals' grunting sounds.

Many other less scientifically based explanations of the German name exist.

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For example, sailing ships stopping to reprovision in the New World would pick up stores of guinea pigs, which provided an transportable source of fresh meat; the French term is cochon cobaye. The origin of "guinea" in "guinea pig" is harder to explain. One proposed explanation is that the animals were brought to Europe by way of Guinea, leading people to think they had originated there. Another hypothesis suggests the "guinea" in the name is a corruption of "Guiana", an area in South America. A common misconception is that they were so named because they were sold for the price of a guinea coin.

Others believe; the guinea pig was first domesticated as early as BC for food by tribes in the Andean region of South America the present-day sout. Son of writer Thomas Mann. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late s.

After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, ; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file.

In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records. The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing.

Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records.

Integrated Authority File The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements.

It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April , the GND held 9,, files, including 2,, personalised names.

His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in and the world's first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in , for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain , he wrote many articles on bacteriology and chemotherapy.

Fleming was knighted for his scientific achievements in In , he was named in Time magazine's list of the Most Important People of the 20th century. Born on 6 August at Lochfield farm near Darvel , in Ayrshire , Alexander was the third of four children of farmer Hugh Fleming from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton, the daughter of a neighbouring farmer. Hugh Fleming had four surviving children from his first marriage. He was 59 at the time of his second marriage, died when Alexander was seven. After working in a shipping office for four years, the twenty-year-old Alexander Fleming inherited some money from an uncle, John Fleming , his elder brother, was a physician and suggested to him that he should follow the same career, so in , the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington.


Fleming had been a private in the London Scottish Regiment of the Volunteer Force since , had been a member of the rifle club at the medical school; the captain of the club, wishing to retain Fleming in the team, suggested that he join the research department at St Mary's, where he became assistant bacteriologist to Sir Almroth Wright , a pioneer in vaccine therapy and immunology. In he was elected the Rector of the University of Edinburgh for a term of three years. During World War I, Fleming witnessed the death of many soldiers from sepsis resulting from infected wounds.

Antiseptics , which were used at the time to treat infected wounds worsened the injuries. In an article he submitted for the medical journal The Lancet during World War I, Fleming described an ingenious experiment, which he was able to conduct as a result of his own glass blowing skills, in which he explained why antiseptics were killing more soldiers than infection itself during World War I. Antiseptics worked well on the surface, but deep wounds tended to shelter anaerobic bacteria from the antiseptic agent, antiseptics seemed to remove beneficial agents produced that protected the patients in these cases at least as well as they removed bacteria, did nothing to remove the bacteria that were out of reach.

Sir Almroth Wright supported Fleming's findings, but despite this, most army physicians over the course of the war continued to use antiseptics in cases where this worsened the condition of the patients. At St Mary's Hospital Fleming continued his investigations into antibacterial substances. Testing the nasal secretions from a patient with a heavy cold, he found that nasal mucus had an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth; this was the first recorded discovery of lysozyme , an enzyme present in many secretions including tears, skin and nails as well as mucus.

Although he was able to obtain larger amounts of lysozyme from egg whites, the enzyme was only effective against small counts of harmless bacteria, therefore had little therapeutic potential. One sometimes finds. When I woke up just after dawn on September 28, , I didn't plan to revolutionize all medicine by discovering the world's first antibiotic , or bacteria killer, but I suppose, what I did.

By , Fleming had been investigating the properties of staphylococci , he was well known from his earlier work, had developed a reputation as a brilliant researcher, but his laboratory was untidy. On 3 September , Fleming returned to his laboratory having spent August on holiday with his family.

Before leaving, he had stacked all his cultures of staphylococci on a bench in a corner of his laboratory.

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On returning, Fleming noticed that one culture was contaminated with a fungus , that the colonies of staphylococci surrounding the fungus had been destroyed, whereas other staphylococci colonies farther away were normal, famously remarking "That's funny". Fleming showed the contaminated culture to his former assistant Merlin Price, who reminded him, "That's how you discovered lysozyme.

Fleming grew the mould in a pure culture and found that it produced a substance that killed a number of disease-causing bacteria. He identified the mould as being from the genus Penicillium , after some months of calling it "mould juice", named the substance it released penicillin on 7 March ; the laboratory in which Fleming discovered and tested penicillin is preserved as the Alexander Fleming Laboratory Museum in St.

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August This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. An English translation by Michael Witty. Fort Myers, Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals. Encyclopedia of Global Health, Volume 1. Edward; Heymann, David L. Escherichia Coli Infections. Duchesne's Antagonism between molds and bacteria, an English Colloquial Translation.

The Complete Rhyming Dictionary | Metre (Poetry) | Poetry

Translated by Witty M. Medicinal Chemistry: An Introduction. Retrieved 1 April Contemporary Medicine in Malta []. Oxford Handbook of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. Retrieved 2 May Chemistry of Antibiotics and Related Drugs. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy, Volume United Nations. Antibiotics: Origin, Nature and Properties. Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine.

University of Santo Tomas, College of Medicine. North Dakota. State Dept. Brody's Human Pharmacology - E-Book.

Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Drug Toxicity and Metabolism in Pediatrics. Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Actinomycetes. Drug Therapy in Nursing. Antibiotic Discovery and Development. Textbook of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - E-Book. Natural Alternatives to Antibiotics — Revised and Updated: How to treat infections without antibiotics.

Academic Press, Oct 12, - Science. Retrieved 12 May CTI Reviews. Unexpected Reactions to Modern Therapeutics: Antibiotics. Retrieved 2 April Evolution in Health and Disease.